Central hypoventilation syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by shallow breathing with occasional apnea. Age of onset is typically in the newborn period, and the features are due to autonomic dysregulation. Other symptoms may include cardiac arrhythmias, temperature instability, profuse sweating, and diminished reactivity of the pupils. Hirschsprung disease occurs in up to 20% of affected individuals with severe constipation in a significant number of additional patients. An increased risk for neural crest tumors such as neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, and ganglioneuroblastoma is present with a higher risk among individuals with non-polyalanine expansions in PHOX2B. Ventilatory support is required throughout life although some individuals will only require support during sleep.